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Marine vessels contribute a significant portion of total pollutant gas and particulate matter emissions near ports and waterways across the United States. As such, current International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), United States Federal, and California Air Resources Board emissions regulations dictate engine exhaust emission limits on CO, NOx, Total Hydrocarbons (THC), and Particulate Matter (PM) with SOx controlled via fuel sulfur content limits. These regulations also dictate a tiered schedule of increasingly stringent emissions limits be met in the future. The Marine Engine Testing and Emissions Laboratory (METEL) at Maine Maritime Academy (MMA) was created to assist and address the emission reduction needs of the marine industry due to regulatory requirements. Several emissions reduction projects are underway at METEL with a Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) under development to quantify all gas and particulate emission improvements from laboratory testing and on board vessel testing at sea. The unique requirement of continuous emissions monitoring in a harsh marine environment requires rugged equipment on board a vessel capable of withstanding shock, vibration, and corrosion. For convenience, a simple calibration procedure is required with calibration stability over time. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is utilized in the system as a gas emissions monitoring device. FTIR has the potential to simultaneously quantify all currently regulated emissions and more than 100 of the 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 . As such, the versatility of FTIR spectroscopy as a single source gas emissions measurement system will be evaluated as an alternative to meet marine emissions regulations. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is additionally employed as a mature technology to measure exhaust particulate matter total number concentration. Additional strategies will be evaluated for measuring particulate matter total mass and particle size.
Thermoelectric materials are an enabling technology that allows the recapture of this wasted energy from heat sources, such as exhaust and coolant systems, which account for nearly 50% of the total combustion energy. If a fraction of the marine diesel's wasted energy could be harnessed and stored with high power density batteries, an electric drive system could be utilized to transport ships quietly and cleanly into and out of congested ports and high population centers. Overall, a dramatic reduction of the maritime industry's carbon footprint could be realized, as a modest 10% increase in engine efficiency translates into a savings of approximately 180,000 barrels of fuel per day on a world-wide basis. Solid state thermoelectric materials, when exposed to a thermal gradient, generate an electric potential according to the Seebeck effect. While the automobile industry has taken a lead in commercializing thermoelectric generators (TEG) as early as 2013, it is the marine industry that may well be the greater beneficiary of this technology. Economies of scale, the ability to generate a higher thermal gradient, and fewer weight and volume constraints, all suggest a promising feasibility for marine applications. The successful development of a hybrid thermoelectric vessel (green ship) at Maine Maritime Academy is an integral part of the Marine Engine Testing and Emissions Laboratory. Maine Maritime Academy, partnered with Thermoelectric Power Systems, LLC, has been conducting research and development in the applications of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) since 2008. The technical rationale behind the inclusion of thermoelectric research is comprised of the following objectives: (1) Provide data on the systems-wide effects of the use of TEGs on plant efficiency and performance (in a marine environment); (2) Identification of optimal marine platforms to utilize TEG energy recovery systems; (3) Identification of optimal thermoelectric materials and TEG designs for classes of marine platforms; (4) To provide the U.S. Department of Transportation with an objective and systems level evaluation of TEGs in marine application
This project scope is to evaluate Hydrogen Injection into Diesel fuels in marine vessels as an emissions reduction technology. The company Global Marine Consulting (GMC) is developing the hydrogen injection system for use in marine vessel and will supply the hardware to be tested in this effort. Maine Maritime Academy (MMA) will test the hydrogen injection system both in laboratory diesel engines and in MMA work vessels under at-sea conditions. The project will evaluate this technology as an emission reduction and mitigation system for use in heavy marine engines as found in marine, rail and stationary power application such as pipeline pumping stations. Preliminary testing by GMC has showed that hydrogen injected into diesel fuel can significantly reduce NOx and Particulate Matter. The system generates hydrogen using shipboard electrical power typically available on a marine vessel. The project will evaluate both emissions as well as engine performance using the system, including effects on vessel operating costs. The project will evaluate the GMC hydrogen injection system for emissions and vessel performance in the MMA R/V Quickwater, a 41 foot coast Guard fast response vessel, that is specially equipped for high fidelity emissions and performance testing. The vessel has twin Diesel engines allowing side by side comparison testing under at sea conditions. Multiple Fuels can be switched over to each engine in real time for each engine while underway, allowing unbiased comparison between two fuels simultaneously.
The thrust of this project is to develop biofuel/biodiesel conversion processes using crude biomass as feedstock. University of Maine's (UMaine's) Forest Bioproducts Research Institute (FBRI) has currently developed a Thermal DeOxygenation (TDO) process and formate assisted pyrolysis process (FasP) for converting crude biomass to biofuel products. The project will focus on upgrading those laboratory processes to produce viable marine biodiesel derivatives which will be testing in Maine Maritime Academy's (MMA's) METEL laboratory test diesel engines. The significant challenge in converting biomass into a transportation fuel is the removal of oxygen which can affect both the stability of the fuel in addition to its compatibility with petroleum derived fuels and infrastructure. The University of Maine has developed two transformative chemical pathways to convert biomass into crude oils that are compatible with petroleum transportation fuels (TDO and FasP). These oils are highly stable and have oxygen contents ranging from 1-10 wt%. Yields from these processes are greater than 50% on an energy basis and show promise as a viable method to efficiently convert crude biomass to marine fuels. UMaine/FBRI will develop and optimize the TDO and FasP processes to produce liter quantities of marine grade biofuel which will then be testing in MMA's single cylinder diesel engine test stand and evaluated for performance and emissions characteristic as compared to conventional diesel fuel.